(Edited on 7/6/12: Read 4711 Eau de Cologne 1792 (???) Mülhens at Perfume Projects to learn about the history of 4711 eau de cologne.)
The original Eau de Cologne which became the famous 4711 was created by Italian expatriate Johann Maria Farina at the beginning of the 18th century. It is the golden standard of the classic Eau de Cologne, named for Farina's new residence in Cologne (Germany). Basically, Mülhens later capitalized on Farina's cologne formula and idea. It's actually inexpensive and easy to find, yet the refreshing citrus scent of bergamot and orange blossom over a light chypre base (which I can't really detect) can compete with Guerlain, Acqua di Parma or Chanel (Les Exclusifs) Eau de Cologne--it's that good. Here's a piece of perfume history worth reading about: check out Wikipedia to learn all about Mülhens 4711, the original eau de cologne here.
(Images: rheindesign.eu, wikipedia, stockflaggen.de)