Tuesday, April 29, 2014

Uses and Misuses of Logic

As far as the propositions of mathematics refer to reality they are not certain, and so far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality. —Albert Einstein (1879-1955) U. S. physicist, born in Germany.

"Science proceeds from facts to laws to theories by a difficult-to-define process called induction. Induction includes pattern-recognition, brainstorming, tinkering, creative guessing and that elusive "insight". It is not a process of deductive logic.

"Theories and laws are required to be of such form that one can deductively proceed from theories to laws to data. The results of deduction must meet a stringent standard: they must agree with experiment and with observations of nature.

"Mathematics is a process of deductive logic. Therefore it is ideally suited to be the language and the deductive link between theories and experimental facts. Because of this, some non-scientists think that mathematics and logic are used to "prove" scientific propositions, to deduce new laws and theories, and to establish laws and theories with mathematical certainty. This is false, as we shall see." Read the article: Uses and Misuses of Logic by Donald E. Simanek, 1997, 1999, 2002.